In order to reduce time of growth, it is highly recommended that planting materials for the improved mango varieties should be grafted or budded (shoot joined on rootstock). This reduces time of flowering to 2-3 years instead of 6-7 years if seed is planted.
Suitable rootstocks are used which withstand soil born diseases. Most trees bear 2 times a year.
Mango spacing depends on the rainfall pattern and soil fertility. In Uganda, the recommended spacing for optimum plant population is 8m x 8m giving 144 plants per hectare (58 plants per acre). Planting Medium fine field is adequate.
Dig holes 60 cm deep and 60 cm wide while separating top soil from sub (red) soil.
Mix well decomposed manure with top soil at 1:1 ratio and put back into the hole to cover the first 30 cm.
Make a small hole within and plant in the grafted seedling. The plastic bags used for potting should be removed before planting.
When covering the hole a basin should be made around each plant for harvesting water. Each plant should be mulched around and a cage or perimeter fencing put in place to avoid damage by animals. One month after transplanting, the grafting tape should be removed.
Any shoots, which grow below the point of union should also be removed.
When planting is done during low rainfall season, the young plants should be watered at least once a week to avoid drying. It is also advisable to give water during flowering, where possible, to avoid flower abortion. Watering after fruit set reduces fruit abortion and increases fruit size.
Apply manure once a year at the beginning of the rainy season. Put at least 2 tins per tree, applied around one metre from the tree. For artificial fertilizers, put about 1 plastic (tampeco) around the tree. Avoid putting too much nitrogen fertilizers to your mango plants during productive stage. Smoking in the field and cutting the bark of the tree encourages flowering.
For Weed management, Slash the orchard regularly. Do not dig through as this will damage roots and cause root rot diseases. Where mulching materials are available, mulching is encouraged.
Production Depending on the variety, the time from flowering to maturity is 100-150 days. Under good management 400-600 fruits per tree per year can be produced. Yield range is 10-16 ton/ha depending on management, variety and age of orchard. In the case of improved varieties, fruits can weigh 0.3 – 2 kg each.
Harvest mature fruits and with smooth, undamaged skin. Use a long stick with a knife and basket at the tip or just long stick with knife and clothes or polythene spread below, off ground to trap falling fruits for tall trees. Collect fruits in a wooden box with smooth inner surface.
Avoid picking fruits from the ground. Insect pests, Diseases and their control.
Mango can be attacked by many diseases which reduce quality and yield.