Planting rice on time will help produce a fast-growing, uniform crop that will have higher yields and will be better able to compete with weeds and pests.The best time to plant depends on the locality, variety, water availability, and the best harvest time. Rice can either be transplanted from a nursery or direct-seeded in the field. Transplanted crops will normally take less time in the production field but 10–15 days longer for the total crop duration. In both cases, a well prepared seedbed is needed.
Wet direct seeding:
Pre-germination of seed. Soak the seed for 24 hours and then drain for 24 hours in the shade before broadcasting evenly over the water-covered soil surface.
Broadcast pre-germinated seed at 100 kg/ha
Allow surface water to drain or percolate naturally into soil
Keep soil surface moist by adding water
Add permanent water at 10–15 days after establishment or at 2–3leaf stage.
Apply basal fertilizer after permanent water is added.
Dry direct seeding:
Hand broadcast dry seed at 100 kg/ha or machine drill seed at 80 kg/ha and 20 mm depth
Apply basal fertilizer through the seed drill
Cover broadcast seed and fertilizer with a light harrowing
Flash flood until 15 days after emergence or 2-leaf stage then add permanent water.
For transplanted crops:
Select a nursery site that is 1/10 in size of the intended planting area
Prepare the nursery by plowing at least twice and harrow at least once.
Level the soil surface and put in drainage lines across the field.
Pre-germination and sowing. Soak the seed for 24 hours and then drain for 24 hours in the shade. Broadcast seed in the nursery evenly, over the water-covered soil surface.
Apply seed: 30–40 kg seed/ha transplanted area.
Apply both chemical and organic fertilizer in the field before the last plowing.
Transplanting age: short-medium duration varieties need 20-30 days and long-duration varieties need 20-40 days in nursery after seeding.
Transplant in lines into puddled and water-covered fields.
Maintain water coverage in field
For direct seeding:
Prepare the field by plowing at least twice and harrowing once-compare seed size and clod size.
Level the soil surface.
Apply and incorporate basal fertilizer before the last plowing or at 10 days after establishment.